Blood Test and Urinalysis Information

Posted By: MaxaLisa

Blood Test and Urinalysis Information - 01/16/11 01:08 AM

Information included in this thread below:

Blood test information

Urine test information

Miscellansous Test Oddities
Posted By: MaxaLisa

Blood Test Information - 10/09/12 03:04 PM

General Overview of Test Interpretations (Idexx manual with some explanations);wap2 (CBC info)

General Problems that can affect Blood tests

Hemolysis specifically


Red Blood Cells and CBC


How Steroids Can Affect the CBC
Stress leukogram of glucocorticoid excess
The hematological response to glucocorticoid effect is a bit variable between species, but the classic glucocorticoid response in dogs is a mature neutrophilia (without a left shift), lymphopenia, eosinopenia and monocytosis. In cats, we would more likely see just a neutrophilia with lymphopenia and eosinopenia (without the monocytosis).

This hemogram response associated with glucocorticoid excess is sometimes referred to as a "stress leukogram," since it is also a common and nonspecific finding in many sick or stressed dogs.

The major acute effect of steroids on WBCs is to cause "washout" of marginated neutrophils and monocytes from periphery into circulation. Decreased amounts of lymphocytes (peripheral) and eosinophils are seen as glucocorticoids can sequester these cells into the lungs and spleen and prompt decreased release from the bone marrow. When administered chronically at high enough doses, glucocorticoids can cause involution of lymphoid tissue.

Steroid effect versus a response to infection?
Infectious responses will often be associated with toxic change in the neutrophils or a significant left shift, which is unusual with steroids. The magnitude of the neutrophilia is also helpful to distinguish between a steroid effect and a response to infection. With glucocorticoids, we can see up to 2-fold increase in dogs and up to 3-fold increase in cats (they have different proportions of neutrophils in circulating versus marginated pools). If the magnitude of the patient's neutrophilia is more severe, then infection is more likely.

Increased platelet numbers
Finally, glucocorticoids inhibit platelet aggregation and can also increase platelet numbers.

With chronic administration (or spontaneous Cushing's syndrome), glucocorticoid excess can increase red cell production and diminish removal of old RBCs, resulting in mild erythocytosis.

More on steroids and the WBC:

What can make basophils rise, and basophils in general

Eosinophils (low eosinophils)
Posted By: MaxaLisa

Urine Test Information - 10/09/12 03:05 PM

Discusses specifically how and why a urine sample should be refridgerated:

Some urinalysis info:

Some UTI info:
Posted By: MaxaLisa

Re: Misc Test Oddities - 10/31/12 05:39 AM

Elevated Lipase

Lipase is a digestive enzyme, normally released by pancreas to break down starches in the digestive tract. When a dog has pancreatitis, or inflamed pancreas, the organ releases more lipase than usual. According to VetInfo, elevated lipase levels are also associated with kidney disease, intestinal problems and dehydration. A vet measures a dog's lipase level in a standard blood test for health, and informs owners if their dog has elevated lipase.

Although lipase levels have no direct correlation with Cushing's disease, they may have an indirect connection. According to Cornell University, use of steroids sometimes increases lipase levels. Since steroid use can damage adrenal glands, and bring on Cushing's, increased lipase levels sometimes indicates a precursor of Cushing's disease. High lipase levels tell a vet that adrenal damage is possible and that a dog should be tested and watched for Cushing's.
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