German Shepherd Home
Print Thread
Rate Thread
Spay/Neuter #82785
09/11/10 08:34 PM
09/11/10 08:34 PM
Joined: Jan 2010
Posts: 19,670
Northern CA
MaxaLisa Offline OP

Global Moderator
MaxaLisa  Offline OP

Global Moderator

Joined: Jan 2010
Posts: 19,670
Northern CA
This thread will contain Spay/Neuter Information
You can scroll down to read the following posts, or, clicking on the link will open a new window.

Spay/Neuter - Behaviour Considerations

Spay/Neuter - Health Considerations

Re: Spay/Neuter - Behaviour Considerations [Re: MaxaLisa] #82786
09/11/10 08:50 PM
09/11/10 08:50 PM
Joined: Jan 2010
Posts: 19,670
Northern CA
MaxaLisa Offline OP

Global Moderator
MaxaLisa  Offline OP

Global Moderator

Joined: Jan 2010
Posts: 19,670
Northern CA
Influence of orchiectomy on canine behaviour.

Changes in the behavior of dogs after castration

Effects of castration on problem behaviors in male dogs with reference to age and duration of behavior.

Androgens, progestagens and agonistic behaviour: a review.

Castration of adult male dogs: effects on roaming, aggression, urine marking, and mounting.

Effect of prepubertal versus postpubertal castration on sexual and aggressive behavior in male horses.

Treatment of problem behaviour in dogs and cats by castration and progestagen administration: a review.

A case series of biting dogs: characteristics of the dogs, their behaviour, and their victims

Differences in background and outcome of three behavior problems of dogs.

From the book The Dog's Mind by Fogle, pgs. 54-56, the author discusses the effect of progesterone and spaying:

Estrogen is seasonally produced in the ovaries of the dog,but then, after ovulation, the other female hormone, progesterone, becomes dominant. Progesterone is fascinating. It probably has a calming effect on the dog's mind. Certainly in large doses it has a sedative effecta dn in fact, modified only slightly, it is actually used as an anaesthetic in animals. While estrogen increases int he dog's body for a short length of time, progesterone remains in the circulation, influencing the brain for two months after each estrus and can have a dramatic effect on canine behaviour. The most common behaviours are those associated with pregnancy, nest building, guarding possessions and milk production. Inmost instances the behaviour is not associated with a true pregnancy but rather with a false hormonal pregnancy, a progesterone induced false pregnancy....the sedative effect of progesterone on some bitches can be stultifying and it is not uncommon that pet owners bring in theri post-estrous bitches thinking tthat they are seriously ill....

He goes on to say that this is one reason that bitches should be spayed before their first heat because once these behaviours are learned (food guarding, possessiveness, etc.), they often become habit. And this is also a reason to spay at anytime because of these dramatic changes and the stress the body goes through because of these progesterone surges, affecting behaviour, taste, etc. Of course you should also spay to protect from mammary cancer, etc.

He then adds this:

The calming effect of the high level or progesterone is also the reason why it is best to avoid spaying bitches for two months after estrus. Spaying during this time can result in a preciptous drop in progesterone levels with possible accompanying emotional disturbances, irritability, aggression and depression.

Last edited by MaxaLisa; 01/21/12 05:43 AM.
Re: Spay/Neuter - Health Considerations [Re: MaxaLisa] #82787
09/11/10 08:52 PM
09/11/10 08:52 PM
Joined: Jan 2010
Posts: 19,670
Northern CA
MaxaLisa Offline OP

Global Moderator
MaxaLisa  Offline OP

Global Moderator

Joined: Jan 2010
Posts: 19,670
Northern CA
Overview by Dodds, 7/2015:

Respect the Ovaries

Vizsla Spay/Neuter Study (2014)

Long-Term Health Risks and Benefits Associated with Spay / Neuter in Dogs (same info) (same info)

Early Spay-Neuter Considerations for the Canine Athlete One Veterinarian's Opinion

Endogenous Gonadal Hormone Exposure and Bone Sarcoma (pdf version)

Determining the optimal age for gonadectomy of dogs and cats
The AVMA published the article publicly, so that pet owners could access it without paying the usual $10 fee. They have asked that if you choose to share the article, that you do so by giving out the link to it (which is at the end of this post) rather than copying the PDF file, so please honor that request if not because its the right thing to do, then because it might lead to even more articles being made public in the future.

Pet Connection Overview

UC Davis Golden Retriever Study, 2/2013
A team of researchers led by Dr. Benjamin L. Hart at the University of California, Davis has completed the most detailed study performed to date that evaluates incidence of cancer diagnoses and joint problems in one breed -- Golden Retrievers -- by neuter status: early (before 12 months old), late (12 months or older), and intact. Consistent with previous studies on the topic, the results showed increased likelihood of hemangiosarcoma, lymphoma, mast cell tumors, and canine cruciate ligament (CCL) rupture in neutered dogs.

The most profound observations were in hip dysplasia in male dogs when comparing early and late-neutering. The risk of development of hip dysplasia doubles, and disease occurs at a younger age in the early-neuter group compared to both the intact and late-neuter group. No occurrence of CCL disease was observed in intact male or intact female dogs, or in late-neutered females. In early-neutered dogs, the incidence of CCL was 5.1 percent in males and 7.7 percent in females, suggesting that neutering prior to sexual maturity significantly increases a dogs risk of developing CCL disease. With respect to cancer, cases of lymphoma were 3-fold greater in the early-neutered males. Interestingly, incidence of mast cell tumors (male and female dogs) and hemangiosarcoma (female dogs only) were highest in the late-neuter group.

AKC Canine Health Foundation


In contrast to European countries, the overwhelming majority of dogs in the U.S. are neutered (including spaying), usually done before one year of age. Given the importance of gonadal hormones in growth and development, this cultural contrast invites an analysis of the multiple organ systems that may be adversely affected by neutering. Using a single breed-specific dataset, the objective was to examine the variables of gender and age at the time of neutering versus leaving dogs gonadally intact, on all diseases occurring with sufficient frequency for statistical analyses. Given its popularity and vulnerability to various cancers and joint disorders, the Golden Retriever was chosen for this study. Veterinary hospital records of 759 client-owned, intact and neutered female and male dogs, 18 years old, were examined for diagnoses of hip dysplasia (HD), cranial cruciate ligament tear (CCL), lymphosarcoma (LSA), hemangiosarcoma (HSA), and mast cell tumor (MCT). Patients were classified as intact, or neutered early (<12 mo) or late (&#8805;12 mo). Statistical analyses involved survival analyses and incidence rate comparisons. Outcomes at the 5 percent level of significance are reported. Of early-neutered males, 10 percent were diagnosed with HD, double the occurrence in intact males. There were no cases of CCL diagnosed in intact males or females, but in early-neutered males and females the occurrences were 5 percent and 8 percent, respectively. Almost 10 percent of early-neutered males were diagnosed with LSA, 3 times more than intact males. The percentage of HSA cases in late-neutered females (about 8 percent) was 4 times more than intact and early-neutered females. There were no cases of MCT in intact females, but the occurrence was nearly 6 percent in late-neutered females. The results have health implications for Golden Retriever companion and service dogs, and for oncologists using dogs as models of cancers that occur in humans.

(See also the reference in the article.)

Last edited by MaxaLisa; 08/17/15 07:20 PM.
Previous Thread
Next Thread

Monthly Photo Contest Winner
Newest Topics
First snow of the season!
by jarn. 11/28/21 02:57 PM
After Dinner
by Woodreb. 11/14/21 04:06 PM
Get well photos
by middleofnowhere. 11/14/21 03:33 AM
Nova is Four
by Mary Jane. 10/30/21 05:47 PM
I'd like to introduce....
by Woodreb. 10/30/21 12:35 AM
Happy Birthday, Ciara Bella
by Woodreb. 10/30/21 12:33 AM
New Topics - Other Animals & Chat
I did it!!!
by Shilohsmom. 12/03/21 06:08 PM
Winter camping
by jarn. 12/02/21 01:07 PM
Tea Nerd
by jarn. 11/30/21 11:38 AM
Cyber Monday
by Shilohsmom. 11/30/21 12:04 AM
Where's Middle
by Shilohsmom. 11/29/21 11:51 PM
Who's Online Now
0 registered members (), 32 guests, and 14 spiders.
Key: Admin, Global Mod, Mod
Previous Monthly Photo Contest Winner
Newest Members
GSDman, GSDluvah, Bonwno, Mongoski, Lawz67
3048 Registered Users
Forum Statistics
Most Online991
Jan 15th, 2020
Powered by UBB.threads™ PHP Forum Software 7.7.1